Vitamin K is an important clotting factor synthesized by intestinal bacteria. Universally all newbornsare deficient in vitamin K because of absence of gut flora, low ability of fetal liver to store vitamin K and insufficient transfer of vitamin K through breast milk. Its deficiency can cause bleeding in neonates right after birth to a few months later. Neonates can present as bleeding from umbilicus, skin bruising, hematoma at injection site and even fatal bleeds like intracranial haemorrhage.
To prevent this vitamin K1(PHYTOMENADIONE)prophylaxis should be given right after birth to all neonates( 0.5mg inless than 1000 grams and 1mg in more than 1000 grams). In the present scenario it should be given as intramuscular injectionusing 26G (1/2 inch needle).
It is available in market in 0.5 ml(1mg) strength. Not enough information is available regarding effectiveness of oral vitamin K to recommend its routine use
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