The most common primary vasculitides in children are Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) and Kawasaki disease. Vasculitis should be suspected in patients with unexplained fever, weight loss, skin rashes; especially when associated with high ESR and CRP.
Secondary forms of vasculitis and mimics should be excluded. For example- Infections (Herpes, Infective Endocarditis), Neurofibromatosis, Drug-Rash, Malignancies (Leukemias, Lymphoma), Post Radiation therapy, Hypercoagulable states (Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome), etc.
A child with suspected vasculitis should be referred to a pediatric rheumatologist for further evaluation and treatment.
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